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The use of coding in education began in the 1960s with the introduction of the Logo programming language. Research suggests that skills such as creative thinking, problem-solving, critical thinking, communication, and collaboration are crucial for success in the 21st century. Tools like Scratch coding can help develop these skills.
More and more teachers are using the Scratch programming tool to create technology-based materials for their lesson plans. The Scratch coding application has text, image, animation, and audio recording features, making it easy for users of all ages and backgrounds to create multimedia learning environments. Users can improve their creativity, collaborative learning ability, and problem-solving ability through this programming tool.
Designing and making digital games, according to Jenson et al. (2016), “provide an ideal framework for operationalizing 21st century learning” (p.111). Pinto and Escudeiro (2014) also found that creating games with Scratch applications can help children develop 21st century skills such as creativity, problem-solving, and critical thinking.
The Scratch tool provides an environment for students to use problem-solving processes such as idea generation, target setting, and testing. Many studies using visual programming tools like Scratch have shown that they improve students’ satisfaction, interest, and enjoyment in learning. Additionally, research has found that the use of visual programming tools increases positive reactions such as interest, satisfaction, and amusement.
Overall, research suggests that students who have programming skills have different thinking, creativity, metacognition and orientation skills than students who do not have those skills (Clements and Gullo, 1984). Furthermore, programming education has been found to be effective in teaching mathematical subjects, developing problem-solving strategies, and fostering collaborative, systematic, and creative thinking.